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cold war. the butter battle book. i don't have time to read it to you. the library has a copy and i have it in my office. classic. it's about two groups. the zooks and the yooks. they don't like each other. why? because one group butters their bread butter side up and the other is butter side down. now there is a reason to go to war. how you butter your bread. but it's a children's story about the cold war and the escalation of it. i said i wasn't going to read it, but i will read the end of it. the very end. it's about developing weapons and one side getting something and the other side responding with a bigger weapon. at the other end, they have developed the big boy boom. the yooks and the zooks are
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clashing. they are coming to the wall that separates them and both have the big boy boom eroo. who is going to drop it? will you or will he? be patient said grandpa. we will see, we'll see. it's a cliff hanger. dr. seuss, right there. who is going to drop the big boy boomer oo. it's the cold war. we have atomic weapons and the soviet union has some. we have an atomic bottom and they get one. we have to have a hydrogen bomb. that takes an atomic to set it off. dr. seuss. anyway. it's an arms race now. what is the soviets' response? here we go. it's not enough. they want to have the largest
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standing army in the world. they are going to develop one that encompasses nearly three million men. that's a lot of folks. they are going to escalate their a comic weapons program. if we are working on hydrogen bombs, they will work on it as well or something else. the most interesting thing in terms of the soviet response is this. support for the satellite. i mean not only the countries and they ensure that their control of eastern europe is solid. solidified. the soviet union is going to throw a lot of moninto weapons development and space technology
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program. and they will put into space rockets and satellites and in 1957, they are going to do something that absolutely terrified us. what is launched in 1957? sputnik. this ball-looking device orbiting the earth. beeping as it is going across the horizon. it absolutely terrified us. we don't have that. we have not successfully put a satellite into space and they v. the realization is they are ahead of us in this space race. we have to catch up. we are going to push and put a lot of money into rocket and
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space technology and eventually we will win and put a man on the moon before they do. but that's another lecture for another day. you need to understand there suspicions and paranoias on both sides. when we do something, the soviet union responds. when they do, it affects us and the cold war is not done yet. it's not just the fall of china and it's not just the united states cozying up to japan. it's going to explode the cold war and it will heat up in korea. now remember the last lecture of world war ii. we talked about korea being occupied by japan. once the war is over, the united states and the soviet union decide to divide korea with the united states being in control of the southern part of korea and the sev yet union is going
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to be administering the northern part of korea. eventually both u.s. and uss r agree we will withdraw and allow them to have a degree of self determination. we are going pull out and the soviet union will and the koreans will be able to determine their future and fate. we both did. the difference is when we pulled out, we took everything with us. when the soviet union pulled out, they left a stockpile of weapons. the most mot earn technology they had at the time. that's a temptation that was going to be used. the following summer with the use of soviet military armaments, they will innovate
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and try to take possession of the country. this is what they had warned us about. they are going to expand into other areas. this is a classic example of expansion and trying to take over the southern part of korea. we must respond and he doesn't go to congress to ask for a declaration of war. he thought it might set a bad precedent. i don't want to have to go to congress and ask them every time. what he does is goes to the united nations. the united nations and ask for a force to be sent to prop up and support and defend the people of south korea. now, the united states is going to do all the heavy lifting here. we will have more men and more development and more money than any other country in the world defending south korea. that's what's going to happen.
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since it is korea that is a police action as the united nations called it and only congress can do that and truman didn't go to congress. what's going to happen is most of the fighting in 1950 is a back and forth. the red arrow shows you the penetration of the north koreans deep into south korea and douglas mac arthur will land which is over here on this eastern coast. he's going to land there and cutoff the north korean forces in the southern part of the country. be very successful with that and then he decides not to be satisfied, but simply driving them out, he decides to invade into the northern part of the country. if you follow the arrow, she headed north. what's the country on the other
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side? that's china. you are mao. it's the summer of 1950 and you had been in power less than a year. you know the policy of the united states that is to contain communist expansion and all of a sudden here at the backdoor, you have a well-decorated united states general leading the united nations forces and they're getting closer and closer. if you are mao, you are as paranoid as stalin and if you are mao, you are thinking that this is all a means to an end. the war in korea is a means to an end and drive mao and the communist into the power in china. we are using the conflict as an excuse to invade china and so his response is to send flood after flood of chinese troops across the boarder to support the north koreans to stop the americans.
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by 1950, we got bogged down. the united states is not only fighting north korean communists, but chinese communists and this war will go on until 1953. the most significant action occurs in the first year and by the summer of 1953, we agree to end with a permanent division of the country at the 38th parallel. south of the 38th parallel, south korea will be a free democratic and capitalistic state north of the 38th parallel, they will be a totalitarian communist state and it's that way today. it's a divided country today and one of the great flash points, i mean you have this lunatic who every now and again threatens against somebody waiting for
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countries around the world to pay him off. it's a flash point today. the origins are here in the middle of the cold war. and one other area to move into. it's not just corae and not just china. outlined in red, what is that country? this is french indo china and back in the lecture. we talked about how the japanese invaded french indo china and nothing france could do about it. the japanese moved in and took over. now that the war is over, the vietnamese would like to have their own right to determine their nation and status. this guy wants to do that. that is ho chi minh.
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he drafts a declaration of independence in 1945 that is modelled after our own united states declaration of independence. if you put the two documents side by side, they are early similar. you would think that the united states would support a nation to who wants to be free and independent. we don't. why not? we are not really going to support for instance and this. more of the political tendency. he is a communist. as much as we would like to support the independence of a nation, we are not going to support the independence of vietnam under communist control. we are going to contain it.
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as best we can. that's next week's lecture for another day. vietnam gets a whole day. there is an awful lot going on in terms of the cold war abroad. the mediterranean, western europe. western hemisphere. china. korea. vietnam. all of these things are a part of the cold war. shift gears now. while all that was is going on overseas, what effect does it have here at home. the cold war on the home front. well, one of the things we are suspicious of are communists. if you want to get anything done, you give it to congress to do. so we are going to flush them out with a committee, the house on american activities committee. one of the interesting things is, we are going to investigate hollywood. they turn out all kinds of
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movies about world war ii, movies in which the enemy are the japanese and the germans. why is it that hollywood is not producing movies in which the enemy are the rugsssians or the communists. is it possible that the communists have infiltrated the film industry? that's the reason why they are not producing these movies? we will have all kinds of subpoenas and movie stars come to washington, d.c. and raise your right hand. i am not now or have i ever been a member of the communist party. you deflect attention from yourself and profess your loyaltyy and devotion to all things american. mom, apple pie, hot dogs, whatever the logan is. chevies? what is that? anyway. ronald reagan. not president yet. iconic actor.
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they called all kind of folks to talk about whether or not communism infalt railtrated the industry. i am not going to play this game. i am an american and i have rights. we don't do this sort of thing in this country. suspicion, innuendo. we do. there ten folk who is said i will invoke my rights. self inkrim nation. that must mean i are a communist. we draw up the black list. they didn't stand up and profess loyalty and they must be a communist. don't hire them.
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if you do, you are a communist and then it goes and goes. it's like that ripple effect. remember the soviet union has an atomic? we need to figure out how that happened. it couldn't have been that they developed a technology themselves. they had to have help. where did the help come from? from within the united states. one of the classic examples of searching through and figuring out who was involved. the husband and wife team, ethyl and jewulius rosen berg. i decided to put it first.
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alphabetically. they will be charged separately and both convicted of espionage along atomic secrets to the soviet union in 1951 and executed for espionage in 1953. this is serious business now. the us has been infiltrated by spies. nothing more serious than the weapons program and the rosen bergs paid the price. what we have then in the united states is a full-fledged red scare. we talked about this afterworld war 1 in the 1920s. this is really a second red scare. we are afraid that the united states, here on our own shores had been infiltrated. we are suspicious of everyone and everything. your next door neighbor might be
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a spy. it's your american responsibility and duty to support the activity. the band leader synonymous with the red scare and flushing out the communists, wherever they might be is this fellow. recognize him? joseph mccarthy. senator from wisconsin. the united states senator from wiscons wisconsin. what he is going to do is gain a lot of attention in 1950 and going to go to wheeling, west virginia and going to deliver a speech. in part of that speech he is going to hold up a piece of paper and said i hold a list of 205 names of known communists working in the state department. you see that piece of paper in my hand and the writing on it and the names and the things on
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here? i'm joseph mccarthy. eye a united states senator and waving a piece of paper and saying i have a list of 205 known communists working in the state department. don't you thank got attention? we are not in the news cycle 24-7 like we are today, but it will get a lot of attention in 1950. all of a sudden the questions. who is on the list? how did he get the list? other communists other than the state department? all of a sudden a junior senator from wisconsin is going to be the darling of the news media. who is he and how did he get the information? a clue that maybe some of his claims and charges were not necessarily on the up and on is that when he would repeat the claim that he knew of communists in the state department, the numbers kept changing. they go from 205 to 56 and the
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numbers kept changing. none the less, he is going to conduct hearings in washington, d.c. where individuals would be subpoenaed and come to testify as to what they know about communism infiltrating the federal government. this is the day and age of television. television is brand-new into the 1950s. what the radio was to the 1920s, the television is to the 1950s. there is no better show on tv in the 1950s than the mccarthy hearings. people are glued to the set. i want to see who the communist is. when it's all said and done, he didn't get a single conviction. yet his legacy still lives on to this day. when there is a charge and accusation that is filed that a certain group doesn't
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necessarily like, they say it's carthyism. well, it's a part of the cold war and it's a part of the times of the early 50s in which we are paranoid slight different inten. more political. less economical. while all of this red scare is going on. we generally look to the president for leadership. harry truman taken this very tough stand against the soviet union.
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he has a very difficult time by the early '50s. we're bogged down in korea. we are at a stalemate in terms of the soviet union and the slide said his hands are tied by politics. and by that i mean harry truman sa democrat, and yet members of his own party are pulling away from him by the early '50s. because he is starting to push for civil rights. that's another lecture for another day. conservative southern democrats are going to push back against truman who wants to push forward a civil right i agenda. so he loses support from his own democratic party. and the republicans aren't going to help truman anyway. they're just playing politics. truman's popularity plummets. and by the early '50s there's sort of a change in the political atmosphere.
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remember i talked about a 30 year cycle. the 1920s, conservatives and republicans. 1930s, liberals and democratic. 1940s, transitional because of the war. we're back to our 30 year cycle. 1950s are going to be more conservative and republican and dominated by these two guys. dwight d. eisenhower and richard nixon. elected in 1952 and '56. republicans regained the white house. republican is much more conservative. who better to lead a cold war that be a general? dwight d. eisenhower. he wasn't really a politician yet. in fact, no one really knew if he was a republican or a democrat.
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not interested in politics. but he decided to get involved. and everybody seemed to like ike, as he was known. he was a very personal gentleman. well, the popularity of eisenhower is not just because of his military record of world war ii. it also has to do with the economy of the day. when you take a look at how the united states emerged from world war ii, we're going to have a dramatic boom. when people have jobs with more income than ever before, they tend to like the party. the republicans are going to be the benefactors of that in 1950. the united states is going to have a tremendous surplus.
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we're going to extend american made goods overseas to europe and other parts of the world that have been devastated because of the war. remember when we were talking about the great depression. and i said the new deal did a lot of good. it put a lot of people back to work. this is what i'm talking about now. another part of the prosperity is the cold war itself. the dramatic increase. we're building a lot of new weapons for war. if you are in a defense related industry you have a job and a gravy train to keep the job. finally the prosperity is due to something called the baby boom.
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sounds ridiculous. i know. if you were born between 1946 and 1964 show of hands. anybody? anybody? i'm a proud member of the baby boom generation. soldiers come back, get married. start families. there's a tremendous demographic called the baby boom. when you start having kids, you start having to buy all kinds of things you don't usually use as an adult. all the sudden the size of your family has increased. you have to have a bigger car. you have to have this and that. it's like driving the american economy. the american consumer drives the american economy. these are very prosperous times for us as a people and us as a
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nation. and the prosperity benefits the republican party. my favorite word. and you knew television coming. not everybody in america is happy. not everybody is content. you see, not everybody in america. the civil rights movement is the most important domestic movement in the second half of the 20th century. and the baby boomers in the 1950s. those folks grow up to be the flower children of the 1960s. yes, i'll share some stories.
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not everybody is happy and not everybody is content in the 1950s. those are all lectures for another day. questions that you have? >> who are some of the names? >> probably some of the names would be gardner. it's not just screen writers, but it was directors and producers all this was sort of hush-hush. to keep their jobs they wrote with assumed names because no one would hire them. it's a great story about survival.
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yes, ma'am. >> didn't the soviets -- [inaudible]. >> they did. in order to try to acquire that many personnel, they are forcing -- would probably be the best way to put it -- not only men into service but women into military service as well. you don't really have any option. >> yeah. i have an entire lecture of vietnam. you need to unction that vietnam is part of the cold war. two lectures from now we're going to talk about u.s. involvement in vietnam. so hang onto that, and i'll get to it later.
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[inaudible]. >> what we're doing now is destroying them? >> why? >> we don't really need the thousands that we have. >> how do you destroy a bomb? >> that's a great question. that's above my pay grade. all right. i hope you have a wonderful break. and i will see you again afterwards. we'll talk about civil rights hoouchlt in vietnam when we return. i think we will have a quiz next time we gather together. how about that?

May 13, 2012 9:30pm-10:00pm EDT

TOPIC FREQUENCY Korea 10, China 8, Vietnam 7, Soviet Union 6, South Korea 4, Truman 4, United Nations 4, Joseph Mccarthy 2, Dr. Seuss 2, Harry Truman 2, Dwight D. Eisenhower 2, Mao 2, Hollywood 2, D.c. 2, Washington 2, Japan 1, Wisconsin 1, Inkrim Nation 1, Cliff Hanger 1, Grandpa 1
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on 5/14/2012